Exception Management

Try/Catch/Finally

The CFML language also provides you with a traditional approach to deal with error handling at the code block level. This is usually a trio of constructs:

Basically, a try and catch statement attempts some code. If the code fails, CFML will do whatever is in the exception to try to handle it without breaking. Of course, many different types of exceptions can occur, which should sometimes be handled in a different manner than the others.

try{
// code to try to execute
} catch( any e ) {
// the any type catches ALL errors from the try above
} catch( myType e ){
// Catch the `myType` only type of exception
} finally {
// this code executes no matter what
}

Catch Types

The catch construct can take an any or a custom exception type declared by the CFML engine, Java code or custom exceptions within your code. This is a great way to be able to intercept for specific exception types and address them differently.

try{
} catch( database e ){
} catch( template e ){
}

Native Exception Types

Some of the exception types found in CFML are the following

  • application: catches application exceptions

  • database: catches database exceptions

  • template: catches ColdFusion page exceptions

  • security: catches security exceptions

  • object: catches object exceptions

  • missingInclude: catches missing include file exceptions

  • expression: catches expression exceptions

  • lock: catches lock exceptions

  • custom_type: catches the specified custom exception type that is defined in a cfthrow tag

  • java.lang.Exception: catches Java object exceptions

  • searchengine: catches Verity search engine exceptions

  • any: catches all exception types

Custom Exception Types

Custom exception types are defined by you the programmer and they can also be intercepted via their defined name. Let's say that the exception type is "InvalidInteger" then you can listen to it like this:

try{
throw( type="invalidInteger" );
} catch ( "InvalidInteger" e ){
}

Throwing Exceptions

Now that you have seen how to listen to exceptions, let's discover the throw or cfthrow constructs used to throw a developer-specific exception. (https://cfdocs.org/cfthrow)

The throw() function or tag has several attributes:

  • Type : A custom or CFML core type

  • Message : Describes the exception event

  • Detail : A detailed description of the event

  • errorCode : A custom error code

  • extendedInfo : Custom extended information to send in the exception, can be anything

  • object : Mutually exclusive with the other attributes, usually another exception object or a raw Java exception type.

try {
throw( message="Oops", detail="xyz", errorCode=12 );
} catch (any e) {
writeOutput( "Error: " & e.message);
} finally {
writeOutput( "I run even if no error" );
}

Rethrowing Exceptions

The rethrow or cfrethrow construct allows you to well, rethrow the active exception by preserving all of the exception information and types. Usually you use rethrow within a catch block after you have done some type of operations on the incoming exception. (https://cfdocs.org/cfrethrow)

try{
runAroundEachClosures( arguments.suite, arguments.spec );
} catch( any e ){
rethrow;
} finally {
runAfterEachClosures( arguments.suite, arguments.spec );
}
// Mix In Stub
try{
// include it
arguments.targetObject.$include = variables.$include;
arguments.targetObject.$include( instance.mockBox.getGenerationPath() & tmpFile );
structDelete( arguments.targetObject, "$include" );
// Remove Stub
removeStub( genPath & tmpFile );
} catch( any e ) {
// Remove Stub
removeStub( genPath & tmpFile);
rethrow;
}